||Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park
(Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Fort Walsh) designated a dark sky
||Cypress Hills celebrates its 40th
||New day lodge, quad chair and other
improvements open at "Hidden Valley" ski hill.
||Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park
Agreement signed, creating Canada's first interprovincial
||Forest management program implemented;
small scale logging occurs in the park for 5 years.
||Major upgrading of Elkwater facilities
underway (i.e. marina).
||Cypress Hills Provincial Park master
||Serious infestation of mountain pine
beetles affects park's lodgepole pine.
||Elk hunting season established in
||Fort Walsh National Historic Park
||Mr. Bob Townsend hired as Cypress
Hills Provincial Park's first naturalist - the first one within
Alberta's provincial park network.
||Cypress Hills visitor centre
||Commercial lumbering operations
terminated; domestic grazing allowed to continue.
||Cypress Hills Skier Association moves
to present location.
||Police Point slump occurs along north
escarpment of Cypress Hills plateau.
||Wild turkeys introduced.
||Spruce Coulee Reservoir and Reesor
||Cypress Hills Skiers Club establishes
ski run serviced by a handle tow.
||Red squirrels and moose
||Elkwater Community Hall opens.
||Park expanded; facilities
||Elkwater Park Golf course opens.
||Dam constructed on Elkwater Lake for
||Cypress Hills Provincial Park
||Second Elkwater school moved from #34
Air Base in Medicine Hat.
||Elkwater Provincial Park
||First school in Elkwater burns down
(prior to this school, school housed in cabin).
||Cobbles mined from Cypress Hills for
||Forestry Branch establishes camp at
Nichol Springs to train men as forest rangers (during World War II,
camp used on occasion by prisoners of war from Medicine Hat
||Elk reintroduced; Elkwater Lake Park
established on shores of Elkwater Lake.
||Another major fire burns in vicinity
of Willow Creek headwaters.
||Control of natural resources
transferred from Dominion Government to Alberta Government; Alberta
Cypress Hills designated a provincial forest.
||J.A. Flath family opens store in
Elkwater; over next 30 years Flath store & dance hall area
||Forest Service constructs Elkwater's
first tourist shelter; construction took 3 years and cost
||Three wolves killed a short distance
from west end of Forest Reserve.
||Eleven permits issued to hunt wolves
in Forest Reserve.
||First grazing permits issued in Forest
Reserve; in previous years, bench area used only for hay
||Three stock associations (grazing)
established in the Cypress Hills.
||Cottage lot lease fees were
||Royal NWMP detachment at Eagle Butte
||First store opened in Elkwater.
||Elkwater subdivision surveyed and
construction of roads completed.
||Cypress Hills Forest Reserve operated
under authority of Canadian Department of Interior.
||Forest Reserves & Parks
Act expands Cypress Hills Forest Reserve to 492 square
kilometres (190 square miles), 80 square miles of which located in
Alberta (known as the Elkwater Block, which coincides with present
Cypress Hills Provincial Park (Alberta); Mr. Wright becomes first
ranger in "Elkwater Block".
||First telephone line from Medicine Hat
reaches Elkwater Lake area.
||Happy Jack Hart opens first coal mine
in the area along north shore of Elkwater Lake.
||Cypress Hills Forest Reserve created
under Federal Forest Reserve Act; reserve comprises 18 sections (18
||A number of forest reserves
established in Canada as concern over exploitation of natural
resources becomes prevalent.
||Much of the area's large game wiped
out in the Cypress Hills; populations of smaller mammals and birds
also greatly reduced.
||Buffalo come under protection of
||Last great plains grizzly shot in the
||Mitchell brothers establish first
homestead in Elkwater Lake area.
||Major fire burns through most of the
||Canadian Pacific Railway reaches newly
established community of Maple Creek; leads to influx of farmers,
ranchers & homesteaders; Fort Walsh abandoned and NWMP
detachment established at Maple Creek; several NWMP outposts remain
active in the Cypress Hills.
||L. Sands Lumber Co. active in the
||Two farms established in the Cypress
Hills to demonstrate farming to natives; farm operated by John
Setter located 48 kilometres (30 miles) northeast of Fort Walsh;
J.J. English farm located at Head of the Mountain (these farms did
not last long, one reason being harsh frost at the end of
||Bison disappear from the Cypress
||Bison virtually eliminated from
||NWMP Constable Graburn murdered in the
Cypress Hills; a native named Star Child arrested and brought to
jury; found not guilty due to lack of evidence.
||Fort Walsh serves as headquarters for
||Blackfoot Confederacy (Peigan, Blood
& Blackfoot proper) sign Treaty No. 7 at Blackfoot Crossing;
129,500 square kilometres (50 000 square miles) of land surrendered
(consisting of remainder of southern Alberta that had not been
given up in Treaty No. 6; more than half of Plains Indians refuse
to try farming or reservation life; they instead leave reserves,
gravitating to the Cypress Hills; more than 5,000 Indians
occasionally congregate at Fort Walsh and its village, a situation
that prevailed until 1883 when Indians persuaded to move onto
reserves, at which time, Fort Walsh is abandoned.
||Chiefs Joseph & Nez Perce seek
refuge from U.S. Army in the Cypress Hills; they are captured in
Bearspaw Mountains en route.
||Sitting Bull & his Teton Sioux
(3,000-5,000 people) take refuge at Wood Mountain after Battle of
Little Bighorn and slaughter of General Custer & his men;
Little Bighorn is a direct consequence of discovery of gold in
Black Hills of South Dakota, which was at the time a Sioux Indian
Reserve - American government tries to force Sioux from gold-rich
lands and Sioux fight back in an attmept to protect their sacred
||102 men under command of James Morrow
Walsh establishes Fort Walsh in west block of the Cypress Hills;
during its operation, NWMP at Fort Walsh virtually eliminates
whiskey trade, establishes law and order and helps negotiate
treaties with natives.
||Métis hivernants winter in the Cypress
Hills at head of Gros Ventre Creek, near Head of the Mountain.
||NWMP detachment leaves Dufferin,
Manitoba; after a demanding trek across the plains, detachment is
set up at Fort Macleod.
||Four trading posts established in the
Cypress Hills, including Farewell's & Solomon's.
||Cypress Hills Massacre occurs: horses
belonging to a wolfing party made up of Americans & Canadians
who were returning to Fort Benton are stolen; upon acquiring new
mounts they begin looking for the thieves; after spending the night
at Farewell's Trading Post, they fall into conflict (for
reasons that are not entirely clear) with some Assiniboines who are
camped nearby; one of the traders and thirty natives are killed;
the day after the massacre, Farewell's & Solomon's are burned
down; no convictions are ever made.
||Isaac Cowie of the Hudson Bay Company
runs a fur trading post east of the Cypress Hills; the trade of
whiskey is forbidden.
||Métis families occupy and re-occupy a
winter village site along the northwest slope.
||Exaggerated reports of the Cypress
Hills Massacre are the last straw in convincing Sir John A.
MacDonald to pass a bill establishing the force known as the North
West Mounted Police (NWMP).
||American ranchers begin driving their
cattle onto the Canadian Plains; permanent white settlement begins
for the first time.
||Hudson Bay Company relinquishes its
charter to Rupert's Land; the newly established Dominion of Canada
assumes sovereignty over the territory renamed North West
||John Palliser leads an expedition from
Edmonton across the plains to Cypress Hills; he describes the hills
as "a perfect oasis in the desert".
||American Exploring Expedition travels
through much of the Cypress Hills region in an attempt to establish
friendly relations with natives.
||Anthony Henday, trader and explorer,
visits the Cypress Hills to urge the Blackfoot Tribe to participate
in the fur trade; the Blackfoot refuse to hunt for the Hudson Bay
||The Hudson's Bay Company is founded in
British North America.